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Joshua Gomez
Joshua Gomez

K J (1) Mp4 High Quality

It feels like the Minnesota Vikings have been searching for a solid third wide receiver forever. In fact, the last time the Vikings had three wide receivers who racked up 500 yards each in a single season was back in 2009 with Sidney Rice, Percy Harvin, and Bernard Berrian.

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And even more importantly, Osborn has not recorded a single drop on 26 regular-season catches (nor on seven preseason catches either). This season, Osborn is one of only seven receivers to record more than 20 catches without a single drop.

The first play here shows how much yardage after the catch can be gained when Cousins hits Osborn in stride across the field. That is the same skillset that allowed Jarius Wright to have so much success in Minnesota on mesh and crossers, particularly on third downs, and it will continue to serve Osborn well over his career.

The second and third plays show that Osborn can legitimately threaten on go routes. Osborn runs a nice vertical route on the second play, giving a quick jab step to threaten inside before breaking outside the nickel corner. If Cousins were not working the other side of the field, this could have been a huge completion. On the third play, Osborn is able to run right past the defensive back again, forcing a key defensive pass interference call to keep this drive alive.

And on the last play, Osborn may not be targeted, but his speed forces the safety and weakside hook defender to carry him upfield, which is precisely why Jefferson gets about as open as you can be in the NFL.

Osborn still has room to grow in his route running. However, suppose he can continue his meteoric development compared to his time in college or as a rookie. In that case, Osborn could develop into a very good separator, particularly off the line of scrimmage. He should be able to, given the reputation he has for his attitude and work ethic.

Osborn essentially allows the Vikings to run 11 personnel while often playing more like a 12-personnel move tight end. He can line up as a split-end X-receiver out wide (where he has lined up on approximately 40% of his offensive snaps this season) and beat press. Or he can line up right off the line of scrimmage to take on linebackers and even defensive ends. That versatility gives the Vikings the ability to threaten the run even while deploying three receivers.

Part of selecting a good quality arrester is understanding the published data. A good quality supplier will fully disclose the relevant data in a format that is comprehensible and user-friendly. This article is a guide to understanding the arrester datasheet and what is behind it.

In every arrester datasheet, you will find a most important table about the discharge voltage of the arrester in question. This table documents how well the arrester clamps lightning and switching surges, which is the fundamental purpose of arresters. This example is for a station class arrester but can be used to understand all discharge voltage tables of all arresters.

Metal-oxide varistor (MOV) type arresters have two voltage ratings: maximum continuous operating voltage (MCOV) and rated voltage. The arrester MCOV is shown in group 2 of table 1 and given in kV (1 kV=1000 volts). This voltage is determined during the course of testing the arrester to IEEE standard C62.11 and is the most important voltage rating of the arrester. It is an AC rating and should in all circumstances be higher than the maximum line-to-ground voltage of the system to which it will be applied. In some circumstances, due to higher temporary overvoltage (TOV) conditions, the MCOV may need to be increased on the arrester, but it should never be decreased below the steady-state line-to-ground voltage of the system.

The rated voltage (group 1) is a rating from the days of the gapped silicon-carbide arrester and has become a number we are familiar with. For that reason, it carried over to the MOV arrester at its initial introduction to the market. Although the rated voltage of the arrester is not relevant to the actual operating voltage of the modern day MOV arrester, it continues to be a common designation used to specify an arrester.

The data found in group 3 is another form of discharge voltage, also known as the front-of-wave (FOW) protective level. In this case, the wave shape has a faster rise time than the 8/20μs used for maximum discharge voltage and represents the second subsequent surges in a multi-stroke lightning flash. Per IEEE C62.11-2012, the current wave shape for this protective level is 1 μs to crest, with no specification on the tail. Note that, in table 1, the term IR is used twice: this is a term that means voltage, as in E = I x R, where E stands for voltage, I for amps, and R for ohms. This term is used by some suppliers but not all.

The data found in group 5 of table 1 (switching surge protective level, 45/90μs discharge voltage) is the third type of discharge voltage that is measured and published for arresters. The peak current levels can vary from 125 amps to 2000 amps, depending on the class of the arrester. This discharge voltage represents the response of an arrester to a slow-rising surge generated within the power systems during breaker or switch operations.

Probably the most widely used table in arrester datasheets is the arrester rating selection table. The example in table 2 is for both distribution and transmission systems. The two most important factors used to select an arrester rating are the system voltage and the neutral grounding configuration of the source transformer. These tables assume that the maximum duration and amplitude of the worst-case overvoltage during a line-to-ground fault are unknown. When two ratings are offered, the lower rating would be the minimum possible, and the higher rating is for the worst-case scenario when nothing is known about potential overvoltage events.

Since most three-phase systems are referred to by the phase-to-phase voltage, that is how the table is set up. In many cases, the arrester rating is less than the line-to-line voltage because arresters are applied line to ground. The line-to-ground voltage is line-line voltage divided by 1.73, for those wishing to calculate it.

This rating is divided into several columns to cover the various system configurations. The neutral configuration of the transformer providing the power to the circuit is the only neutral configuration that needs to be considered. Downstream transformers do not affect the potential overvoltages unless it is part of the fault source.

This column is primarily a distribution-type circuit where the neutral conductor is grounded in many places along the circuit as well as at the feed transformer. In this case, the maximum overvoltage on this type of system is 1.25 per unit of line-ground voltage (pu) and the duration of an overvoltage is be very short (a few cycles).

This can be either a distribution or transmission circuit. In this case, the worst-case overvoltage from a faulted circuit is 1.73pu line-to-ground voltage. This means the line-to-ground voltage can increase to equal the line-to-line voltage in some instances.

Per IEEE C62.11, all arresters shall have a fault current rating. This rating indicates how much 60Hz short-circuit current from the power system can flow through the arrester without violent rupture and large fragment expulsion. Note that this is not a lightning or switching current but instead a power frequency, system-sourced current.

The short-circuit test is conducted by putting a failed arrester in series with a fault current source for the given duration in seconds, or cycles, as shown in column three of table 3. The listed current level must flow through or around the arrester for the given duration without expulsion of internal parts in order to pass the tests. Distribution arresters are tested at current levels up to 20,000 amps for 12 cycles, and station class arresters are tested as high as 63,000 amps and up. A lower current of 500 amps is also tested and is shown in table 3. To ensure minimum collateral damage to other equipment in the event that an arrester is overloaded, the available system short-circuit current should not exceed the level as shown in column two of table 3.

Every good arrester datasheet will tabulate the energy handling capability of an arrester. The information in table 4 is according to IEEE C62.11-2005. In the 2012 edition, different tests are mandated and the values are different. Until 2012, this rating was not standardized, and manufacturers published slightly different levels. See table 5 for more information on how to use the new data.

The impulse classification current, shown in table 3, is a value that some manufacturers choose to add to their datasheets to provide extra information. This is the impulse current level used during the IEEE duty cycle tests in IEEE C62.11. For distribution arresters, it can be 5 or 10kA, and for station arresters it can be 5, 10, 15, or 20kA. Generally, the higher the current, the higher the arrester durability.

The high-current withstand capability is almost always found in an arrester datasheet, as shown in figure 2. This current refers to the impulse current level used during the IEEE high current short duration test. For normal duty arresters it is 65kA, for heavy duty and riser pole arresters it is 100kA, and for station class arresters the minimum level is 65kA. It may seem odd that a station class arrester can be certified lower than a distribution arrester, but this is because station arresters are designed for use in substations that are almost always shielded by overhead wires and direct strokes do not reach the station class arresters. This rating is actually the only means of evaluating the energy handling capability of a distribution arrester since they are not tested using other energy rating tests. 041b061a72


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